Genetic Forms


At present researchers have recognized multiple forms of inheritable dystonia and have identified at least thirteen genes or chromosomal locations responsible for the various manifestations.

  • DYT1  –   Early onset-primary dystonia
  • DYT2  –   Autosomal recessive primary dystonia
  • DYT3  –   X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism or Lubag
  • DYT4  –  "Non-DYT1" ("whispering") spasmodic dysphonia
  • DYT5  –   Dopa-Responsive Dystonia
  • DYT6  –   Adolescent-onset, primary, mixed type
  • DYT7  –   Adult-onset primary dystonia
  • DYT8  –   Paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesia
  • DYT9  –   Paroxysmal choreoathetosis with spasticity
  • DYT10 –  Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD
  • DYT11 –  Myoclonus dystonia
  • DYT12 –  Rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP)
  • DYT13 –  Early- and late-onset focal or with onset in cranial-cervical


Studying these genes already identified may shed light on the mechanisms of the disease process itself or reveal a pattern which produces certain proteins. This research has potential to help all. All dystonias have similar symptoms which involve the same area of the brain and the similar neurotransmitters. Until now, we have directed treatments to the effects of dystonia. Now we can attempt to direct treatment efforts to the causes of dystonia.




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